|Ingredients||Selenium , Vitamin C ,Zinc , Vitamin E , VitaminA|
|Shape and number||60 capsules , soft gel|
|How to use||1 capsule daily with foodOlder Individuals: three spoonful a day(15ml)
|Cases of use||Prevention of free radical effects in the bodyPrevention of premature aging process and its consequences Hair and Skin health
Selenium is an essential trace-element. It is a component of enzymes and is involved in a lot of metabolism-reactions, additional the selenium sustains the body’s defences because it neutralizes “free radicals”. The development of “free radicals” is be influenced by unhealthy environmental influence like stress or air pollution. The trace element zinc is an essential mineral nutrient. Zinc is an activator for more than 100 enzymes and it is indispensable for healthy skin and advances the healthy growth process of hairs and nails.
1. General information about Selenium :
Selenium acts as a micronutrient or trace element in the human body. Its distribution in the earthۥs crust varies from place to place. Its content of water varies even more greatly. The amount present in foods also varies widely. Males appear to have a greater need for this mineral and about half the supply of their bodies is concentrated. selenium is a grey, crystalline element of the sulphur group. It is an antioxidant and its biological activity is closely related to vitamin E. It is excreted in the semen.
2. How much selenium should we need daily?
Recommended Daily Allowance for selenium (RDA) :
|0-6 months||15 µg/day|
|7-12 monthsOlder Individuals: three spoonful a day(15ml)
|1-3 years:||20 µg/day|
|4-8 years:||30 µg/day|
|9-13 years:||40 µg/day|
|Adolescents and Adults:|
|Males||age 14 and older||55 µg/day|
|Females||age 14 and older||55 µg/day|
3. Selenium roles in health :
Selenium acts with vitamin E as a non- specific antioxidant to protect cell membranes and tissues.
Selenium and vitamin E prevent or slow down the aging process and hardening of tissues. Selenium aids in maintaining youthful elasticity in tissues.
Special protein synthesis
Selenium helps make special proteins, called antioxidant enzymes, which play a role in preventing cell damage. At least 25 proteins have been identified in this way. Most important of them is glutathione peroxidase. This enzyme is antioxidant that reduce potentially damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of these enzymes protects developing sperm from oxidative damage. Thioredoxin reductase is one of antioxidant enzumes that participates in the regeration of several antioxidants, possibly including vitamin C.
Thyroid gland health
Iodothyronine deiodinase is a protein that acts in thyroid gland hormone maturation. Thus selenium is an essential element for normal development, growth and metabolism because of its role in the regulation of thyroid hormones.
Blood vessel health
Selenoprotein P is a selenium dependent protein that is found in plasma and also associated with vascular endothelial cells (cells that line the inner walls of blood vessels). The primary function of this protein appears to be a transport protein for selenium. It also functions as an antioxidant that protects endothelial cells from damage induced by free radicals.
One of the selenium dependent proteins is found in muscle, and it is thought to play a role in muscle metabolism ( selenoprotein W) Selenium has been found beneficial in the prevention and treatment of keshan disease. This is a syndrom endemic to the keshan province in china, where the soil is deficient in selenium. Keshan disease is characterized by degeneration of the muscle fibers of the heart. During their child- bearing years, women are particularly susceptible to this disease.
Some medical information suggests that selenium may help prevent certain cancer, but better studies are needed. One of selenoproteins called sep 15 is mammalian protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell. This protein has a protective function and also implicated in cancer prevention.
Selenium is also important in male sexual health. One of the selenoproteins is expressed exclusively in testes and is thought to function in spermatogenesis. Selenium may boost fertility, especially among men. It has been shown that selenium improves the production of sperm and sperm movement.
There have been mixed results regarding seleniumۥs impact on cardiovascular disease. Act of selenoprotein P in vascular endothelial cell is important in this way.
Selenium seems to stimulate antibodies after vaccination. There is a selenoprotein (Selenoprotein S) that is involved in retranslocation of misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. This protein may also be involved in inflammatory and immune responses.
4. Selenium Deficiency:
Low levels of selenium put people at higher risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disease, and other conditions associated with increased free radical damage, including premature ageing and cataract formation. Muscular weakness and wasting, cardiomyopathy and inflammation have been observed in some cases of selenium deficiency.
5. Food sources for Selenium :
Plant foods, such as vegetables are the most common dietary sources of selenium. Also fish, red meat, grains, eggs, chicken liver and garlic are all good sources of selenium.
6. Who are in high need for selenium supplements?
Selenium is needed for everyone in life because of enormous effects throughout body
Individuals who live in polluted areas.
Individuals with gastrointestinal problems such as crohns’ disease
Phenylkatonuria (PKU) patients.
Adults for maintaining youthfulness of tissues.
7. Scientific researches about selenium:
Selenium is a component of glutathione peroxidase, which possesses antioxidantactivity and demonstrates antioxidant properties in humans. Long-term clinical benefits remain controversial.
2. Keshan disease
Keshan disease is a cardiomyopathy (heart disease) restricted to areas of China in people having an extremely low selenium status. Prophylactic administration of sodium selenite has been shown to significantly decrease the incidence of this disorder. Organic forms of selenium (such as selenized yeast or Se-yeast) may have better bioavailability than selenite and thus may be better preventative treatments for Keshan disease.Selenium is used to treat and prevent selenium deficiency (for example in those with HIV or receiving enteral feedings).
3. Prostate cancer prevention
Initial evidence has suggested that selenium supplementation reduces the risk of developing prostate cancer in men with normal baseline PSA (prostate specific antigen) levels and low selenium blood levels. This is the subject of large well-designed studies, including the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPC) and the ongoing Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), as well as prior population and case-control studies. The NPC was conducted in 1,312 Americans and reported that daily selenium reduces the overall incidence of prostate cancer. However, these protective effects only occurred in men with baseline PSA levels less than or equal to 4 nanograms per milliliter and those with low baseline blood selenium levels. The NPC trial was primarily designed to measure the development of nonmelanoma skin cancers, not other types of cancers, and therefore these prostate cancer results cannot be considered definitive. To settle this question, further study is underway. The SELECT trial is in progress, with a goal to include 32,400 men with serum PSA levels less than or equal to 4 nanograms per milliliter. SELECT was started in 2001, with results expected in 2013.Laboratory studies have reported several potential mechanisms for selenium’s beneficial effects in prostate cancer, including decreases in androgen receptors and PSA production, antioxidant effects, angiogenesis inhibition, or apoptosis.It is not known if selenium is helpful in men who already have been diagnosed with prostate cancer to prevent progression or recurrence of the disease. It does appear that selenium may not be beneficial in those with elevated PSA levels or with normal/high selenium levels. It remains unclear whether men at risk (or all men) should have their serum selenium values measured; results of the SELECT study may provide additional guidance. There is evidence that low selenium levels are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and several mechanisms for the beneficial effects of selenium supplementation have been suggested.In the NPC trial, no benefits were seen in reducing the risk of colorectal or lung cancers. Although an overall reduction in cancer risk was observed, it is not clear what specific types of cancer, besides prostate cancer, may be prevented by selenium supplementation.
Preliminary research reports that selenium supplementation may help improve asthma symptoms. Further research is needed to confirm these results.
5. Blood disorders
Selenium supplementation may offer benefits in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency and chronic hemolysis. Selenium supplementation may also affect platelet function and coagulation.
Because selenium is proposed to have a role in immune function, selenium supplementation has been studied in patients with various infections. Some evidence suggests that selenium may promote recovery from bronchitis and pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Though selenium may correct selenium deficiency in patients with bronchitis, more studies are needed to show its effectiveness in treating respiratory infections.
7. Cancer prevention
Several studies suggest that low levels of selenium may be a risk factor for developing cancer, particularly gastrointestinal, gynecological, lung, colorectal, and esophageal cancer. Studies have shown significantly reduced risk of some (but not all) cancers in subjects taking selenium supplements. Selenium supplementation may reduce cancer incidence in men more than women. Ongoing trials are examining the precise role of selenium in reducing cancer risk.
8. Cancer treatment
Several studies suggest that low levels of selenium (measured in the blood or in tissues such as toenail clippings) may be a risk factor for developing cancer, particularly prostate, gastrointestinal, gynecological, and colorectal cancer. Population studies suggest that people with cancer are more likely to have low selenium levels than healthy matched individuals, but in most cases it is not clear if the low selenium levels are a cause or merely a consequence of disease. It remains unclear if selenium is beneficial in the treatment of any type of cancer.
Low selenium levels have been associated with the development of cardiomyopathy, and selenium supplementation is likely of benefit in such cases (for example in Keshan disease and Chagas’ disease). However, most cases of cardiomyopathy are not due to low selenium levels and therefore selenium may not be helpful. It has been suggested that low selenium levels may be a risk for coronary heart disease, although this remains unclear.
10. Cardiovascular disease (prevention)
Despite the documented antioxidant and chemopreventive properties of selenium, studies of the effects of selenium intake and supplementation on cardiovascular disease yield inconsistent findings. Better-designed trials are needed to reach a firm recommendation.
11. Central nervous system disorders
Studies have consistently shown that antioxidants have no clinical benefits in motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although the research thus far does not discourage selenium supplementation in patients, more research is needed before selenium is recommended as a treatment for central nervous system disorders.
12. Cystic fibrosis
Preliminary research of selenium supplementation in cystic fibrosis patients yields indeterminate results. Further research is needed in this area before a conclusion can be drawn.
Studies report that selenium-containing shampoos may help improve dandruff, and selenium is included in some commercially available products
The benefits of selenium supplementation in dialysis patients remain unclear. Some methods of dialysis may lower plasma selenium levels.
15. Eye disorders
Although selenium appears to be involved in cataract development and uveitis (eye inflammation), it is not known whether selenium supplements may affect the risk of developing these disorders. Research in this area is warranted.
16. High blood pressure
Some studies have reported that low serum selenium levels may be related to increased blood pressure. Furthermore, known anti-hypertensive therapies (such as ACE-inhibitors) do not appear to affect the activity of serine-dependent enzymes.
Selenium supplementation has been studied in HIV/AIDS patients, and some reports associate low selenium levels with complications such as cardiomyopathy. It remains unclear if selenium supplementation is beneficial in patients with HIV, particularly during antiretroviral therapy.
18. Infection prevention
Preliminary research reports that selenium can be beneficial in the prevention of several types of infection, including recurrence of erysipelas (bacterial skin infection associated with lymphedema), sepsis, or Mycoplasma pneumonia . Selenium may help prevent infection by stimulating immune function. Further research is needed to confirm these results before a clear recommendation can be made.
Selenium supplementation has been studied for male infertility and sperm motility with mixed results. Evidence is lacking regarding the potential effects on female infertility.
20. Liver disease
Selenium supplementation has been studied in various liver disorders, including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer, with mixed results.
Because antioxidant supplements are thought to slow aging and prevent disease, selenium supplementation may increase longevity. However, results from clinical trials are mixed, and it is still unclear whether selenium supplementation can affect mortality in healthy individuals.
22. Low birth weight
Selenium supplementation has been studied in low birth weight infants. Additional evidence is warranted in this area before a clear conclusion can be drawn.
Low selenium status has been demonstrated in several malabsorptive syndromes and in some digestive and gastrointestinal allergic conditions. There is some evidence that children with food allergies have a higher risk of selenium deficiency. There is no clear benefit of selenium supplementation as a therapy for malabsorptive syndromes, although vitamin supplementation in general may be warranted.
There is inconclusive evidence regarding the use of selenium in pancreatitis.
25. Physical endurance
The anti-oxidant effects of selenium have been suggested to improve physical endurance. However, the available evidence suggests that selenium supplementation does not affect physical performance or endurance training.
26. Quality of life
Studies of selenium supplementation for mood elevation and quality of life yield mixed results. Further research is needed before a firm conclusion may be reached.
27. Rheumatoid arthritis
Selenium supplementation has been studied in rheumatoid arthritis patients with mixed results. Additional research is necessary before a clear conclusion can be drawn.
It is unclear whether serum selenium levels are related to seizures in patients with epilepsy or brain tumors. More research needs to examine whether selenium supplementation can affect the frequency or severity of seizures.
29. Skin disorders
Taking selenium by mouth has been studied for its effects on psoriasis and lesions induced by arsenic or the human papilloma virus (HPV). Selenium has also been used to treat eczema and to increase the rate of burn wound healing. Although some results appear promising, the overall results are mixed. Additional study is needed in this area.
30. Sunburn prevention
Phorotection was initially observed in preliminary research using selenium supplementation and other antioxidants, although there is some evidence of ineffectiveness in preventing light-induced erythema (skin redness).
31. Thyroid conditions
Thyroid function is thought to depend on selenium, and thyroid problems are common in patients with selenium deficiency. Selenium has been suggested to improve goiter, as well as inflammatory activity in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis or Grave’s disease. Further research is needed before selenium supplementation can be recommended for thyroid conditions.
32. Arthritis (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis)
Selenium-ACE, a formulation containing selenium with three vitamins, has been promoted for the treatment of arthritis. Research has failed to demonstrate significant benefits, with a possible excess of side effects compared to placebo.
33. Diabetes (prevention)
Some studies have suggested that selenium supplementation may help prevent type 2 diabetes by improving glucose metabolism. However, results from the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer (NPC) trial showed increased rates of type 2 diabetes in subjects taking selenium supplements. Although diabetes was not the primary focus of this study, these results indicate a potential risk of selenium supplementation that needs further examination.